Task 1. Listen to the passage and answer the questions:
1. The speaker says we don’t usually celebrate leaders who are …
2. However, great change can happen. Which example does she NOT give of situations which can cause massive change?
A. A political movement
B. Extreme weather conditions
C. A terrorist attack
D. A virus
3. The speaker asserts that in a time of crisis, we need leaders who are …
4. She tells us that, firstly, communication for managers is important, but they must …
A. be honest about the limitations of their knowledge.
B. only confirm what information they know.
C. be honest that they don’t know what they are doing.
D. assure their team that they have all the answers.
5. The second rule for managers in a crisis is …
A. wait until they have all the information they need before acting.
B. make a plan and wait until you have the information you need.
C. act quickly, even if you don’t have all the information.
D. act quickly when you have all the information you need.
6. The example given of New Zealand’s Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern shows that a leader should …
A. consult with others and then take action.
B. use what information they have to take action, then make adjustments later if needed.
C. make a plan using what information they have and then stick to it.
D. avoid taking action until they have all the knowledge they need.
7. The third point that the speaker made was to keep your … at the heart of your decisions.
A. customer experience
B. goals and aims
C. guiding light
D. principles and purpose
8. The final point the speaker makes is that a good crisis manager should … so that people feel …
A. delegate tasks/ invested in the process and part of the solution.
B. take the time to explain their thoughts/clear on what is happening.
C. take full responsibility/protected from negative outcomes.
D. stick with a plan/certain of where they are going.
USE OF ENGLISH
Task 1. Read the text and circle the letter (A, B or C) of the word which best fits each space (1-12).
Every year, large numbers of desperately poor people, many of them(1) … from war and oppression in Sub-Saharan countries, illegally attempt to cross the narrow straits between North Africa and Europe’s southern border. Dreaming (2) … a new life in prosperous Spain, or further north, they are often (3) … by people-traffickers into handing over their life savings, (4) … advance, for a tiny boat. These unscrupulous men (5) … to tell them about the terrible dangers of the crossing, and the (6) … immigrants, many of them unable to swim, set off in unseaworthy boats wearing (7) … clothing. This is a (8) … for disaster. The powerful currents and changeable weather sink many of the boats, with the number of victims (9) … to be in the hundreds annually. Those few who make it to the coast, often suffering (10) …exposure, are likely to be picked up quickly by the ever (11) … Spanish authorities, who then (12) … them back to where they came from.
|1.||A. siblings||B. refugees||C. descendants|
|2.||A. of||B. with||C. in|
|3.||A. deceived||B. distracted||C. disappointed|
|4.||A. on||B. in||C. at|
|5.||A. avoid||B. bother||C. neglect|
|6.||A. joint||B. successive||C. prospective|
|7.||A. a extravagant||B. inadequate||C. quaint|
|8.||A. dose||B. quota||C. recipe|
|9.||A. estimated||B. nominated||C. complemented|
|10.||A. about||B. from||C. of|
|11.||A. alert||B. stumped||C. philanthropic|
|12.||A. clasp||B. deport||C. enhance|
Task 2. For questions 13-15, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
e.g. The hotel staff had permission to use the tennis courts on Mondays.
ALLOWED The hotel staff was allowed to play tennis on Mondays.
13. If the factory doesn’t increase its production, it will close down.
UNLESS ___________________its production, it will close down.
14. It was only when I asked a passer-by that I realized where I was.
DID Not until ______________________I realize where I was.
15. No doubt she moved there when she was very young.
MUST She ______________________ there when she was very young.
Task 3. For questions 16-20, choose the letter of the correct answer.
16. I didn’t get home until well after midnight last night. Otherwise, I _____________ your call.
A. returned B. would return C. would have returned
17. Florida, _____________ the Sunshine State, attracts many tourists every year.
A. known as B. is known as C. that is known as
18. When the university suggested ______ the tuition again, the student senate protested vigorously.
A. to raise B. raise C. raising
19. All passengers were made _______ their seat belts during the turbulence.
A. to buckle B. buckle C. to have buckled
20. The Prime Minister did not attend the press conference, ________ he was out of the country.
A. due to B. for C. because of
Read the text below and then answer questions 1-3choosing the answer (A, B, C, D orE) which fits best.
THE GREAT DEBATES
The first of the Great Debates, between Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts and the incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon on September 26, 1960, centered around domestic issues. The topic of the next debate, on October 7, was a clash over U.S. policy regarding two small islands off the Chinese coast, and on October 13, this controversy continued. On October 21, the final debate, the candidates focused on American/Cuban relations.
Few of the 70 million viewers could have fathomed what this first-ever televised presidential debate augured, not only for this specific series of debates but more importantly for the preeminent role the fledgling medium would play in the future of the political arena.
A pallid Nixon arrived at the Chicago CBS studios after a grueling day of campaigning. The previous August a knee infection had sidelined him. He was still twenty pounds underweight, and he perspired profusely in an ill-fitting shirt. Moreover, he declined makeup to burnish his hospital pallor. The freshly–painted studio backdrop had dried to an ashen hue that obscured his matching suit.
The Democratic contender by contrast exuded a robust glow after a month of campaigning in California. He had spent his day rehearsing potential questions and relaxing. An aide later admitted that he supplemented his natural glow with a smidge of makeup. He was fit, trim, and confident.
Despite the remarkably similar agendas and arguments of the Republican and the democrat, TV viewers unequivocally believed Kennedy to be the victor – whereas people who had followed the debates on the radio held the opposite opinion. The age of TV had arrived, and the subsequent party shuffle proved the undeniable potency of television.
1. The author is mainly concerned about
A. the debating styles of John Kennedy and Richard Nixon during the 1960 Great Debates
B. the domestic issues which affected the result of 1960 Great Debates
C. the health of Richard Nixon at the time of the 1960 Great Debates
D. the number of television viewers who tuned in to the 1960 Great Debates
E. the effect of television on the results of the 1960 Great Debates
2. It can be inferred from the passage that
A. Kennedy was a better debater than Nixon
B. Nixon was the unequivocal winner of the 1960 debates
C. The Democrat beat the Republican in the 1960 election
D. Nixon was more prepared for the first debate than Kennedy
E. Kennedy and Nixon disagreed strongly on issues on the home front.
3. According to the passage, which of the following was true of Richard Nixon?
A. He had a five o’clock shadow during the first debate.
B. He wore a brown suit during the first debate.
C. He warned of the impending Cuban crisis.
D. He limped on stage for the first debate.
E. He lost his job after the election.
WRITING AND TRANSLATION
Task 1. Translate into Ukrainian:
Angela Merkel, Germany’s chancellor, has long had two operating principles in Europe: to keep the club united, and to postpone resolving crises until the last possible moment. Both were evident in a last-minute deal struck late on December 10th in Brussels between the European Union’s 27 heads of government. With a fiscal crunch looming, the leaders at last gave the green light to a seven-year EU budget worth €1.1trn ($1.3trn) as well as a one-off €750bn fund, financed by joint borrowing, to speed recovery from the covid-19 crisis. […]
The financial agreement caps a fraught five months in which the EU’s governments have struggled to flesh out the details of the recovery-fund deal they struck in July. Back then the leaders backed the principle of attaching rule-of-law protections to disbursements of EU cash. […] Faced with drastic cuts that would have applied had the EU begun 2021 without a budget in place, the European Commission considered rebuilding the fund outside EU structures, thereby excluding the hold-outs.
Task 2. Write a summary of the following text in English (120-130 words).
БАЙДЕН ВЖЕ СКАСОВУЄ УКАЗИ ТРАМПА. ПЕРШІ РІШЕННЯ НОВОГО ПРЕЗИДЕНТА
У перший день після присяги президент США Джозеф Байден підписав серію указів та розпоряджень, що скасовують рішення Дональда Трампа, а також запроваджують нові заходи в боротьбі з пандемією.
Так, Байден оголосив, що питання зміни клімату та проблем екології стане пріоритетом як зовнішньої, так і внутрішньої політики його адміністрації. У середу, 27 січня, він підписав низку указів, які мають заморозити нові договори щодо оренди ділянок федеральних земель для видобування нафти й газу. Це рішення, однак, не стосується ділянок у приватній власності.
Окрім цього президент США розпорядився до 2030 року подвоїти вироблення енергії з альтернативних джерел та наказав директору нацрозвідки США підготувати звіт про те, як наслідки кліматичних змін можуть вплинути на безпеку країни.
Також Байден наказав держорганам підготуватися до впливу зміни клімату на їхню діяльність та поліпшити доступ громадян до інформації з цього питання. При цьому, в указах Байдена йдеться про те, що органи влади мають ухвалювати рішення ґрунтуючись на фактах та «використовуючи найкращі з наявних наукові дані».
Ще під час передвиборчої кампанії Байден обіцяв відновити членство країни в Паризькій угоді щодо змін клімату, про вихід з якої Трамп оголосив у 2017 році зі словами “мене обрали, щоб представляти громадян Піттсбурга, а не Парижа”. Процес виходу з угоди реально завершився після президентських виборів 4 листопада. Байден повернув цей процес у зворотному напрямку.
Окрім цього Джо Байден переглянув інші рішення свого попередника Дональда Трампа.
Зокрема Байден вже скасував указ Трампа, який забороняв в’їзд у США з кількох переважно мусульманських країн, і призупинив будівництво стіни на кордоні з Мексикою, яку за попереднього президента цілодобово будували до останнього дня.
У заяві щодо скасування заборони на в’їзд з країн йдеться, що це було “плямою на нашій національній совісті” і не відповідало “нашій давній історії прийняття людей будь-якого віросповідання – так само, як і тих, хто не має його взагалі”.
Також новий президент підписав указ, який забороняє міграційним органам вдаватися до спроб видворити з країни людей, що прибули в США у дитинстві разом із батьками-нелегальними мігрантами.
Також Байден призупинив процес виходу країни зі Всесвітньої організації охорони здоров’я, розпочатий його попередником, і зробив обов’язковим носіння масок та соціальне дистанціювання в усіх федеральних установах для держслужбовців.
“Я одразу розпочав роботу і вжив заходів для: контролю за пандемією; надання економічної допомоги; боротьби зі змінами клімату; просування расової справедливості”, – написав Байден в офіційному акаунті в твіттері.
Listening Comprehension ~4.30
1. b 2. c 3. d 4. a 5. c 6. b 7. d 8. a
Amy Edmondson: We think of a great leader as the unwavering captain who guides us forward through challenge and complexity. Confident, unwavering leaders, armed with data and past experience have long been celebrated in business and politics alike.
Amy Edmondson: But sometimes and certainly now, a crisis comes along that is so new and so urgent that it upends everything we thought we knew. One thing we know for sure is that more upheavals are coming. In a completely interconnected world a single political uprising, a viral video, a distant tsunami, or a tiny virus can send shock waves around the world.
Amy Edmondson: Upheaval creates fear, and in the midst of it people crave security, which can incline leaders toward the usual tropes of strength, confidence, constancy, but it won’t work. We have to flip the leadership playbook. First, this type of leadership requires communicating with transparency, communicating often. So how can leaders lead when there is so little certainty, so little clarity? Whether you are a CEO, a prime minister, a middle manager or even a head of school, upheaval means you have to ramp up the humility. When what you know is limited, pretending that you have the answers isn’t helpful.
Amy Edmondson: Amidst upheaval, leaders must share what they know and admit what they don’t know. Paradoxically, that honesty creates more psychological safety for people, not less. For example, when the pandemic devastated the airline industry virtually overnight, CEO of Delta Airlines Ed Bastian ramped up employee communication despite having so little clarity about the path ahead, facing truly dire results. At one point in 2020, losing over a hundred million dollars a day, it would have been far easier for Bastian to wait for more information before taking action, but effective leaders during upheaval don’t hide in the shadows. In fact, as Bastian put it, it is far more important to communicate when you don’t have the answers than when you do.
Amy Edmondson: Second, act with urgency despite incomplete information. Admitting you don’t have the answers does not mean avoiding action. While it’s natural to want more information, fast action is often the only way to get more information. Worse, inaction leaves people feeling lost and unstable. When New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern laid out a four-level alert system very early in the COVID-19 crisis, she lacked information with which to set the level. Despite lacking answers, she did not wait to communicate about the threat with the nation. At first, she set the level at two, only to change it to four two days later as cases rose.
Amy Edmondson: That triggered a national lockdown, which no doubt saved countless lives. Later, when cases began to dissipate, she made subsequent decisions reflecting that new information. Third, leaders must hold purpose and values steady, even as goals and situations change. Values can be your guiding light when everything else is up in the air. If you care about customer experience, don’t let go of that in times of upheaval. If a core value is health and safety, put that at the centre of every decision you make. Now doing this requires being very transparent about what your values are, and in this way, your steadfastness shows not in your plans, but in your values. Prime Minister Ardern’s clear purpose all along was protecting human life.
Amy Edmondson: Even as the immediate goal shifted from preventing illness to preparing health systems and ultimately to bolstering the economy. And finally, give power away. Our instincts are to hold even more tightly to control in times of upheaval, but it backfires. One of the most effective ways to show leadership, if counterintuitive, is to share power with those around you. Doing this requires asking for help, being clear that you can’t do it alone.
Amy Edmondson: This also provokes innovation while giving people a sense of meaning. Nothing is worse in a crisis than feeling like there’s nothing you can do to help. We follow this new kind of leader through upheaval, because we have confidence not in their map but in their compass. We believe they’ve chosen the right direction given the current information, and that they will keep updating. Most of all, we trust them and we want to help them in finding and refinding the path forward.
Use of English:~15 хв
Task 1.1. B 2. A 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. C 7. B 8. C 9. A 10. B 11. A12. B
Task 2. 13.unless the factory increases ; 14. I asked a passerby did; 15. must have moved;
Task 3. 16.C; 17.A; 18.C; 19.A;20.B;
Ref.: englishforeveryone.org Advanced Critical Reading
1.E. (The effect of television on the results of the 1960 Great Debates was the main concern of the author)
2. C. (The Democrat beat the Republican in the 1960 election; there was a party shuffle. This is mentioned in the last line (21) of the passage. Since Nixon, the republican was the incumbent, the shuffle resulted in Democrats taking office.)
3. E. (Nixon lost his job after the election. Since there was a party shuffle, the incumbent lost his job. The incumbent Vice President was Richard Nixon.)
Writing and translation: